Where Are All the Watchdogs?

Total number
of IG vacancies

Offices of Inspectors General (OIG) serve as independent watchdogs within federal agencies and are essential to a well-functioning federal government. They conduct audits and investigations that identify wasteful government practices, fraud by individuals and government contractors, and other sorts of government misconduct, even including torture. Congress and the public rely on OIG reports to hold agencies and individuals accountable for wrongdoing, identify a need for legislation, and evaluate the effectiveness of government programs and policies. Unfortunately, many OIGs across the government do not have permanent leadership. POGO’s “Where Are All the Watchdogs?” page tracks how long Inspector General positions across the government have been vacant.

Read more below: Who appoints the IGs | Why having a permanent IG is important | Methodology


AgencyDays VacantVacancy DateNomineeDays Since NominationNomination
Who Nominates
the IG


Graphic of Department of the Interior Seal
Department of
the Interior
2/23/2009* - - - President
Graphic of Export-Import Bank of the United States Seal
Export-Import Bank
of the United States
6/27/2014 Mark L. Greenblatt 9/02/2017 President
Graphic of Central Intelligence Agency Seal
Central Intelligence Agency 1/31/2015 - - - President
Graphic of Department of Energy Seal
Department of Energy 9/29/2015 Teri L. Donaldson 6/06/2018  President
Graphic of Department of Defense Seal
Department of Defense 1/09/2016 - - - President
Graphic of Office of Personnel Management Seal
Office of
Personnel Management
2/19/2016 John Edward Dupuy 10/16/2017 President
Graphic of Postal Service Logo
Postal Service 2/19/2016 - - -  Agency
Graphic of Social Security Administration Seal
Social Security Administration 5/29/2016 Gail S. Ennis 10/16/2017 President
FEC Seal 150
Federal Election Commission 3/03/2017 - - - Agency
HUD Seal
Housing and Urban Development 6/30/2017 Rae Oliver 6/25/2018 President
Tennessee Valley - TVA logo
Tennessee Valley Authority 9/22/2017 - - - President
Graphic image of the Department of Homeland Security seal
Department of
Homeland Security
12/1/2017 - - - President
Federal Trade Commission
Federal Trade Commission 5/31/2018 - - - Agency

Who Appoints the IGs

There are currently 73 statutory federal OIGs. Those OIGs fall into two broad categories: (1) OIGs that require the IG to be nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate, and (2) OIGs that require the agency to nominate the IG. The former category generally involves larger agencies, while the latter generally involves smaller agencies, known as designated federal entities. Thirty-seven (37) IGs require a presidential nomination, while 36 require an appointment by the agency.

** Although SIGAR requires a presidential appointment, it does not require Senate confirmation. 

** FCC currently staffed by an agency appointee but is awaiting presidential appointment. Transitioned to presidential appointment via H.R.1625 - Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018.

Why Having a Permanent IG Is Important 

OIGs are best positioned to be effective when led by a highly qualified permanent IG, rather than an acting official or no IG at all. Permanent IGs undergo significant vetting—especially the IGs that require Senate confirmation—before taking their position. That vetting process helps to instill confidence among OIG stakeholders—Congress, agency officials, whistleblowers, and the public—that the OIG is truly independent and that its investigations and audits are accurate and credible.     

In addition, a permanent IG has the ability to set a long-term strategic plan for the office, including setting investigative and audit priorities. An acting official, on the other hand, is known by all OIG staff to be temporary, which one former IG has argued “can have a debilitating effect on [an] OIG, particularly over a lengthy period.” Senator Charles Grassley (R-IA) has echoed that sentiment, saying “Even the best acting inspector general lacks the standing to make lasting changes needed to improve his or her office.”


The initial list of vacancies was obtained from a directory of IGs maintained by the Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency (CIGIE). Vacancy dates for IG positions that require a presidential appointment were obtained from a database maintained by the Government Accountability Office (GAO). Vacancy dates for IG positions not listed in the GAO database were obtained from a variety of sources, including IG resignation letters and agency press releases. POGO defines the start of a vacancy as the last date in which a permanent IG served in that capacity. If no specific date can be found but a month can be identified, the last day of that month is used. Information regarding presidential nominations was obtained from a database maintained by the White House.

* Earl Devaney, the most recent permanent Inspector General at the Department of the Interior, was appointed Chair of the Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board on February 23, 2009. Devaney took a leave of absence from his position at Interior at that point, leaving Acting IG Mary Kendall responsible for running the office. Devaney has now resigned from federal service. POGO considers the position effectively vacant at the time Devaney was appointed Chair of the RAT Board, although it should be noted that the Obama Administration did not have the power to fill the position until Devaney retired from federal service at the end of 2011.  

Please contact Nick Pacifico at npacifico@pogo.org if you notice that the status of an IG position has changed.